At the end of the thirtieth year of reign, the pharaohs celebrated the “Sed” or royal jubilee.
The ceremony demonstrated the pharaoh’s vigour, a necessary condition for the good state of the reign. One of the most important moments was the sovereign’s ritual tun who so demonstrated his vigour: he had to go around two building Hat symbolized border: stones, for three times.
The architectural complex symbolized in all its structures the royal duties and the union of Egypt: the chapels, the houses of North and South and the royal stand with the pavilions for the two thrones. The altar represented the southern and northern borders of the Country. The name “sed” of the celebration derived from the word with which the Egyptians indicated the tail of an animal (bull or lion) which was part of the royal clothing (it hung from the King’s waist) and it symbolized his power.
The ceremony was divided in three phases:
the first one repeated the rituals of the incoronation.
The king, dressed in the typical white clothing that covered him completely leaving uncovered only his head and hands, received the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt while he alternately sat on both thrones, each one in a chapel. In the second phase the sovereign’s bride appeared with his children who represented the dynastic inheritance. In the third phase the king lifted the pilaster “djeed” (a stone column that maybe symbolized Osiris’s spine) to emphasize the power avid the stability of his power.
The “sed” celebration ended with a procession in which the pharaoh visited the main divinities of the country.